Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

CITES also known as the Washington Convention is a multilateral treaty signed on 3 March 1973 in a meeting of members of the IUCN; to protect endangered plants and animals.

CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975, ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild.


The Convention accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants and as of October 2016, the it has 183 parties, including 182 states and the European Union.

Each protected species or population is included in one of three lists, called appendice:

1) Appendix I, includes species that are threatened with extinction and are or may be affected by trade.
2) Appendix II, includes species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation.
3) Appendix III, includes species that are listed after one member country has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling trade in a species. The species are not necessarily threatened with extinction globally.


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