The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), founded on 5 October 1948 in Fontainebleau, France is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
IUCN having headquarter in Gland, Switzerland includes 1400 governmental and non-governmental organizations as its members and employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
Having a observer and consultative status in UN, IUCN also helps in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity.
IUCN Red List
IUCN also compile and publish the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN Red List or Red Data List founded in 1965, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
The list is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies with aim to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, or at least every ten years.
There are nine groups included in the list based on rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation.
Extinct (EX), Extinct in the wild (EW), Critically endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU), Near threatened (NT), Least concern (LC), Data deficient (DD) and Not evaluated (NE).