23Th July 2018 : Daily Current Affairs - UPSC CSE/IAS and State PSC

This page contains "23Rd July 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The Hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.

Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.

Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Why in news ?
The Supreme Court refused to adjourn a proposed hearing on a batch of petitions challenging its verdict of 2013 that had re-criminalised consensual carnal sex between two adults.

What is Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

Chapter XVI, Section 377 of IPC referring to "unnatural offences" was introduced in 1861, during the British rule of India.

Section 377 refers to "unnatural offences" and mandates that whoever voluntarily has carnal inter course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years, and shall also be liable to pay a fine.

Offences under Section 377 with respect to sex between consenting adults were decriminalised by the High Court of Delhi on July 2009. But the judgement was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 11 December 2013, holding that amending or repealing Section 377 should be a matter left to Parliament, not the judiciary.

On February 2016, during the final hearing of the petitions filled by the Naz Foundation and others, a three member bench headed by CJI said petitions submitted will be reviewed afresh by a five-member constitutional bench.

On August 2017, SC stated that protection of sexual orientation lies at the core of the fundamental rights and that the rights of the LGBT population are real and founded on constitutional doctrine.

Not only "anal penetration" but sexual acts such as "fellatio" may be punishable under this act.

On December 2013, Supreme Court, virtually denied the LGBT community the right of choice and sexual orientation while upheld the criminalisation of gay sex and dismissed the LGBT community as a negligible part of the population.

In Aug, 2017, the fight against Section 377 got a major boost when a nine-judge Bench of the Supreme Court held that "the right to privacy" is a fundamental right intrinsic to life and liberty.

172nd Law Commission Report had recommended the deletion of Section 377.

June 2018, A person's choice of a partner is a fundamental right, and it can include same-sex partner, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud.
Discuss: Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Act, 2018

Centre is planning to replace statutory body University Grant Commission (UGC) with a new body named "Higher Education Commission of India." A draft named "Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Act, 2018" is presented in public domain and is open for suggestions from all stakeholders.

Why a new body is needed ?
The UGC is preoccupied with disbursing funds and is unable to concentrate on mentoring higher education institutes, focus on research, and implement other quality measures required in the education sector.

What is Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) ?

Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) seeks to replace UGC, where the proposed body will focus more on quality education while funding powers is been taken away from it, the body will also have power to close down bogus institutes.

The plan is to separate education quality and funding power of higher education. New Higher Education Commission of India will be responsible to ensure quality education while MHRD (Ministry of Human resource development) or any other new body will take care of funding universities and colleges.

As anticipated earlier, there is no plan to merge all higher education regulators into a agency called (Higher Education Empowerment Regulation Agency. Other regulatory bodies like AICTE and NCTE will also be reformed in similar manner.

UGS don't have powers to enforce compliance, it just have authority to list bogus institutes and not recognise their degrees. The new body will have powers to enforce compliance to the academic quality standards and the power to order closure of sub-standard and bogus institutions, the non-compliance could result in fines or even a jail sentence.

The composition of new body HECI will comprise a Chairperson, a Vice-Chairperson and 12 other members, an eminent academics and a prominent person of industry.

Implications with HECI
As proposed under the draft bill, the new body can take away higher education from the State's list since financial powers would now stay with the Central government.
Discuss: Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Act, 2018

Rani Ki Vav - a motif on 100 Rupee Note

A new note of Rs 100 denomination is issued by The Reserve Bank of India which has a motif of 'Rani Ki Vav' on the reverse, depicting the country's cultural heritage.

What is "Rani Ki Vav" ?

"Rani Ki Vav" a UNESCO's World Heritage Site since 2014 is situated on the banks of the Saraswati river in Patan, Gujarat. 'Rani Ki Vav' a stepwell had bagged the title of 'cleanest iconic place' in India at the Indian Sanitation Conference.

Rani ki vav, built as a memorial to an 11th-century king Bhima during the rule of the Chaulukya dynasty. It is a distinctive form of subterranean water resource and storage systems.

"Rani Ki Vav", a masterpiece in craftsmen ability in stepwell construction is built in Maru-Gurjara architectural style with an inverted temple, reflecting the mastery of the complex technique and great beauty of detail and proportions.

It has 500 principle and over a thousand minor sculptural panels of high artistic quality depicted on seven levels of stairs, these sculptures are a combination of religious, mythological and secular imagery and often reference to literary works.

A rectangular tank 9.5M by 9.4M is also situated on the deepes level IV of the building, at a depth of 23M. A well is also located at the westernmost end of the property and consists of a shaft 10 m in diameter and 30 m deep.
Discuss: Rani Ki Vav - a motif on 100 Rupee Note

The Global Slavery Index 2018

The 2018 Global Slavery Index measures the extent of country wise modern slavery, and the steps taken by respective governments to respond to the issue towards ending it.

Global Slavery Index 2018

In global Slavery Index 2018, India stands at 53 in terms of prevalence among 167 countries whereas North Korea has the highest prevalence of modern slavery with the ratio of one in 10 people.

The report on Global Slavery Index 2018 reveals that, in 2016 8 million people were living in modern slavery in India that is around 6.1 victims for every thousand.

According to the report's findings 10 countries accounting for 60 percent, with the largest number of people in modern slavery are India, China, Pakistan, North Korea, Nigeria, Iran, Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Russia and the Philippines.

The Global Estimates of Modern Slavery reveals that in 2017 40.3 million individuals were living in modern slavery being exploited for the purpose of sexual exploitation, forced labour, forced marriage, domestic servitude, and forced criminality.

Another finding of the report indicates that there are more female(71 percent) than male victims across all forms of modern slavery.

The report also says that the prevalence of modern slavery in high-GDP countries like United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and several other European nations is higher than previously understood.

The report also highlights that two major external drivers behind modern slavery are highly repressive regimes and conflict situations. Highly repressive regimes puts the populations to work to prop up the government while conflict situations breaks down the rule of law, social structures, and existing systems of protection.

Government's effort
Globally, governments are taking more action to strengthen legislation, policy, and programmatic responses to modern slavery to improve the established coordination and accountability mechanisms.

Moreover, high-GDP countries such as Qatar, Singapore, Kuwait, Brunei and Hong Kong are doing very little to respond despite their wealth and resources, while low-GDP countries such as Georgia, Moldova, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Mozambique are responding strongly.

India's stand
Ministry of Women and Child Development(GoI) questioned the definition of modern slavery used in the research and termed the index flawed in its interpretations. Indian government also said that the context of socio-economic parameters are diverse and very nuanced in India and hence the Index does not reflect the true picture.
Discuss: The Global Slavery Index 2018

Important points for prelims
1) 10th edition of the Delhi Dialogue : The 10th edition of the Delhi Dialogue held in New Delhi with the theme "Strengthening India-ASEAN Maritime Co-operation", the theme has been chosen aptly this time in view of focus that government wants to put on ASEAN India maritime cooperation.

Test Your preparation with: 23 Jul, 2018 | Current Affairs multiple choice questions

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