3rd August 2018 : Daily Current Affairs - UPSC CSE/IAS and State PSC

This page contains "3rd August 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The Hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.

Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.

What is Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill - 2018 ?

"Fugitive Economic Offender bill 2018", is passed by Lok Sabha, the bill now replace the "Fugitive Economic Offender Ordinance - 2018" promulgated by the President.

Why such a bill is needed ?
There have been many instances of economic offenders fleeing and skipping the jurisdiction of Indian courts. This indicates that existing civil and criminal provisions are not entirely adequate to deal with the severity of the problem, therefore government had to brought the "Fugitive Economic Offender bill 2018" in picture.

What is Fugitive Economic Offender bill - 2018 ?

The "Fugitive Economic Offender bill-2018" empowers a "Special Court" under the "Prevention of Money-laundering Act, 2002" to declare a person as a "Fugitive Economic Offender" and direct the Central government to confiscate all the assets belonging to the offender.

Confiscated property also includes those assets that are proceeds of the crime and other property belonging to such offender in India and abroad, including benami property.

According to bill a "Fugitive Economic Offender" is one who is trying to avoid criminal proceedings against him in India and has left India to do so, or is already being abroad, refuses to return to India to face the charges.

To ensure that courts are not over-burdened, cases involving 100 crore rupees or more under frauds, cheque dishonour or loan default will be covered under the bill.

Concerned government investigation agencies has to file an application before the Special Court for a declaration that an individual is a fugitive economic offender, than a notice will be issued by the court to alleged individual.

The bill disqualifies a "fugitive economic offender" from availing the "Indian judicial system" for "civil cases". The appointment of an administrator is also mandated under the proposed bill.
Discuss: What is Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill - 2018 ?

Plastics emitting greenhouse gases ?

According to a study published in the journal PLOS ONE, plastic used in everyday objects from bottles to packaging emits potent greenhouse gases like methane and ethylene when exposed to sunlight, terming it a global concern about its impact on the world's oceans grows.

A giant island made up of plastic waste, found in pecefic ocean is much more bigger than anticipated earlier, environmentalists across the world are scrutinising plastic pollution because the scale of the problem has become clear now.

The effect of green house emission from plastics was largely ignored in the past because of their low exposure to sunlight but the danger is nor increasing as the pollution increases.

Plastic pollution and GHGs

Burning fossil fuels is major source of Methane emission, which is a major driver of global warming. Now the study indicating plastic pollution adding more to the emission can be a cause of concern for those who are fighting against climate change.

More than nine billion tons of plastic has been produced since 1950 with most of it discarded in landfills or the environment, the study is another source of consolidating the view that "losing plastic to the environment is not good".

Moreover Scientists have repeatedly linked exposure to some plastic chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), to health risks.

The garbage patch of plastic floating in the Pacific holds as much as 16 times more debris than was previously thought, directly exposed to sunlight, proving that plastic pollution can be a cause of not only health risk or marine life but a risk to earth itself by contributing to global warming.
Discuss: Plastics emitting greenhouse gases ?

"Early initiation of breastfeeding" report by WHO

"Early initiation of breastfeeding" report

"Sri lanka" has secured first position in a report titled "Early initiation of breastfeeding", released by UNICEFand the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Among a total of the 76 countries analysed, India has secured 56th position, the report released on "International Breastfeeding Day-2018", indicates that only two in five newborns are breastfed within the first hour of life across the world.

According to the report, breastfeeding to newborn in very first hour of their birth gives the child best chance to survive, grow and develop to their full potential.

The report ranks Kazakhsthan, Rwanda, Bhutan and Uruguay much above than India, making it into the top 10, while countries like Azerbaijan, Pakistan and Montenegro are at the bottom.

Importance of Early breastfeeding

The report emphasise that the the focus should be on mother-in-law, the husband and the service providers to ensure that early initiation does take place.

Missed opportunities of early initiation of breastfeeding is India is attributed to a low awareness among healthcare staff, despite nearly 80 per cent births are institutional deliveries in India.

Breastfeeding in the first hour of life is considered as baby's first vaccine and is extremely rich in nutrients and antibodies. Continuous and exclusive breastfeeding thereafter is also important.

Those who began breast feeding between 2 and 23 hours after birth had a 33% greater risk of neonatal death compared with those who began breastfeeding within one hour of birth.
Discuss: "Early initiation of breastfeeding" report by WHO

Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amended Act, 2016

Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amended Act, 2016 prohibits benami transactions and provides for confiscating benami properties, the act replaced Benami Transactions Act, 1988.

What is Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 2016 ?

According to the act a benami transaction is a transaction, where a property is held by or transferred to a person, but has been provided for or paid by another person.

It also includes properties where the transaction is made in a fictitious name, the on paper owner of the property is not aware of or denies knowledge of the ownership and the property whose on paper owner is not traceable.

As per the act's provisions a "Benamidar" is a person in whose name the benami property is held or transferred, while a "Beneficial owner" is a person who actually benefitted from the property held by the benamidar.

Exemption under Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 2016

According to the act excemptions are given to certain properties:

1) A property held by a member of a Hindu undivided family for his or another family member's benefit, paid off from sources of income of that family.
2) A property held by a person in a fiduciary(trustable) capacity.
3) A property paid by a person's income, but registered in the name of his/her spouse or child.

An Authority is established under the act to acquire benami properties, and four authorities to conduct inquiries or investigations:

1) Initiating Officer: Initiating Officer issue a notice to suspected benamidar, and may hold the property for 90 days from the date of issue of the notice, subject to permission from the Approving Authority. At the end of the notice period, the Initiating Officer may pass an order to continue the holding of the property as benami.

2) Adjudicating Authority: The Initiating Officer will refer the case to the Adjudicating Authority, who will decide whether or not to hold the property as benami based on examining all documents and evidence relating to the matter.

3) Administrator: In case an order of confiscating the property is passed, the Administrator will receive and manage the property in a manner and subject to conditions as prescribed.

4) Approving Authority: Initiating Officer hold the property as benami based on permission from the Approving Authority.

An Appellate Tribunal is also created under the act to hear appeals against any orders passed by the Adjudicating Authority. Appeals against orders of the Appellate Tribunal will be heared by the high court.

According to the act an entry into benami transactions will attract rigorous imprisonment up to seven years, or a fine upto 25 per cent of the fair market value of the property, or both.

The act also has provisions for certain sessions courts to be designated as Special Courts for trying any offences which are punishable under the act.
Discuss: Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amended Act, 2016

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