A lake is a large body of natural water accumulated in a depression. Lake basins are formed due to endogenous geological processes like tectonism and volcanism and exogenous activities like landslides, glaciation, solution, river and wind action.
Classification of LakesLakes are classified based on size, shape, depth and mode of formation.
Tectonic LakesThese lakes are formed due to the folding and faulting of plates in earth's Crust. Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, Tso Moriri and Pangong Tso (Ladakh) are some examples of such lakes.
Crater LakesThese lakes are formed when caldera and craters are filled with water. Lonar lake in Maharashtra is one such example.
A caldera or crater is a large hollow that forms shortly after the emptying of a magma chamber in a volcanic eruption.
When large volumes of magma erupt over a short time, structural support for the rock above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the emptied or partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface.
Glacial LakeThese lakes are formed to the erosion/melting of glaciers. They are formed when a glacier erodes the land, and then melts, filling the depression created by the glacier.
Most of the glacial lakes are found in the Himalayan region in India.
Ox-Bow LakesAn oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water
It is formed due to the depositional and erosional activities of the River.
LagoonsA lagoon is a shallow body of water protected from a larger body of water (usually the ocean) by sandbars, barrier islands, or coral reefs. Lagoons are often called estuaries, sounds, bays, or even lakes.
Chilika Lake, Pulicat Lake are some of the examples.
Artificial LakesFormed by Humans for recreational, hydrological, ecological, economical purposes.
Major Lakes in India
|State||Name||Type of Lakes||Description|
|Pulicat Lake||Brackish Water||It encompasses Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary;
Satish Dhawan Space Centre located here
|Kolleru Lake||Freshwater||Home to migratory birds|
|Nagarjuna Sagar||Freshwater||Artificially constructed;
|Haflong Lake||Freshwater||High altitude lake|
|DeeporBeel||Freshwater||Under Ramsar Convention|
|Son Beel||Freshwater (Tectonically formed)||Largest wetland in Assam|
|Chandubi lake||Freshwater||Migratory Birds (winter);
formed by 1897 earthquake
|Bihar||Kanwar Lake||Oxbow (freshwater)||Asia?s largest freshwater oxbow lake;|
|Hamirsar lake||Artificial||Situated in centre of Bhuj|
|Kankaria lake||Artificial||During 14th century by Muhammed Shah II|
|Narayan Sarovar||Artificial freshwater||Pilgrimage site for Hindus|
|Thol Lake||Lentic lake||Constructed for irrigation purpose|
|Badkal Lake||Freshwater||Man made|
|Blue Bird Lake||Freshwater||Migratory Birds, Wetland Habitat|
|Brahma Sarovar||Freshwater||Ancient water pool sacred to Hinduism|
|Damdama Lake||Freshwater||Constructed by British government for Rainwater Harvesting|
|Karna||Freshwater||Connected to great epic Mahabharata|
|Tilyar||Freshwater (canal inflow)||Located inside Tilyar Zoo|
|Chandra Taal||Sweetwater lake||Ramsar wetland site|
|Suraj Taal||Freshwater (High Altitude)||Bhaga River inflow|
|Prashar lake||Holomitic (Freshwater)||It has a floating Island|
Jammu & Kashmir
|Dal lake||Warm monomitic||Remnants of past glacial period|
|Pangong Tso||Endorheic Lake (saline water)||Indo-China Border|
|Wular lake||Tectonic lake (freshwater)||Largest freshwater lake in India|
|TsoMoriri||Saltwater||High altitude lake|
|Agara lake||Freshwater||Located in southwest part of the city|
|Karanji lake||-||Butterfly park|
|Ulsoor lake||Stale water||It has several islands|
|Honnamana||Freshwater||Holy lake, place for various festivals|
|Pampa Sarovar||Freshwater||Tungabhadra river|
|Ashtamudi Kayal||Brackish water||Ramsar wetland site|
|Kuttanad||Backwater paddy cultivation|
|Vembanad||Brackish water||Ramsar wetland; boat race|
|Madhya Pradesh||Bhojtal||Freshwater||Ramsar site; largest artificial lake in India|
|Lonar lake||Crater lake||National Geo-Heritage monument|
|Manipur||Loktak lake||Lenticular freshwater||Ramsar wetland; Phumdis (Floating Islands); Multipurpose project|
|Meghalaya||Umiam||Freshwater||Famous for cycling and boating|
|Chilika lake||Brackish water||India's largest brackish water lake; lagoon|
|Kanjia lake||Freshwater||Wetland of national importance|
|Harike||Freshwater||Ramsar wetland site|
|Rupar||Freshwater||Manmade riverine lake|
|Kanjli||Freshwater||Ramsar wetland site|
|Sambhar lake||Saltwater||Ramsar wetland; largest inland saltwater lake in India|
|Tsomgo lake||Freshwater||Winter frozen|
|Khecheoplari||Freshwater||Sacred lake for Hindus and Buddhists|
||Ooty lake||Freshwater||Boat House|
|Hussain Sagar||Artificial lake||Artificial Gibraltar rock-island|
|Badrakali lake||Freshwater||Artificial lake|
|Uttar Pradesh||Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar||Man-made lake||Rihand dam|
|Uttarakhand||Bhimtal||Freshwater||Medium altitude lake|
|West Bengal||East Calcutta wetlands||Brackish water||Ramsar wetland|