General Studies notes for UPSC/IAS, UPPSC and State PSCs


Protected areas in India (National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves)

Protected Areas in India India has a network of 868 Protected Areas covering a total of 1,65,088 km2 of geographical area of the co ...

Apr 28, 2021 13:41 IST · 11 min read

What are "Peatlands" ? Peatlands's importance in climate change

Peatlands are a type of wetlands that occur in almost every country on Earth, currently covering 3% of the global land surface. These are h ...

Apr 25, 2021 11:27 IST · 1 min read

What is a "mangrove" forest ? (Sundarbans, Bhitarkanika etc)

A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtrop ...

Apr 25, 2021 10:55 IST · 1 min read
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Physical Geography

Earth's axis : Geographical poles and Magnetic poles

According to a study published in Geophysical Research Letters of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) - our planet's axis of rotation has been mov ...

May 07, 2021 11:08 IST · 4 min read

What are "Space Hurricanes" and "Auroras" ?

What is Space Hurricane ? For the first time ever, scientists from China's Shandong University have confirmed the existence of 1,00 ...

Mar 14, 2021 08:02 IST · 2 min read

Celestial Bodies (Stars, Planets, Comets, Meteoroid, Meteorite and Meteor)

A celestial body can be defined as any natural body outside of the Earth's atmosphere. Celestial bodies or heavenly bodies are objects in space ...

Nov 06, 2020 18:41 IST · 3 min read
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Geography of India

Natural Vegetation and Forest Types in India

Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long time, so that it could adjust itself to climate and soil ...

May 02, 2021 16:04 IST · 9 min read

"Major Dams in India" - related River name and State

A dam is a structure built across a river or stream to hold back water. Dams are mainly built in order to produce electricity by using water, this for ...

May 01, 2021 19:25 IST · 2 min read

State wise list of major tribes in India

A tribe is a social division in a traditional society consisting of families linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common cultu ...

May 01, 2021 05:30 IST · 6 min read
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Modern Indian History

Land Revenue Systems during British rule in India

Before independence, there were three major types of land tenure systems prevailing in the country: The Zamindari System, Ryotwari system and Mahalwar ...

Feb 21, 2021 15:55 IST · 3 min read

Books, Magazine and Newspapers written by Freedom Fighters

Our freedom fighters wrote many books to propagate their ideologies and motivate people to participate in the freedom struggle. Here is a list of popu ...

Feb 21, 2021 14:57 IST · 3 min read

Round Table Conferences (1930-32)

The three Round Table Conferences of November 1930 - December 1932 were a series of peace conferences organized by the British Governmen ...

Feb 12, 2021 14:04 IST · 2 min read
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General Science

Biofuels: Generations and Types (Bioethanol, Biodiesel Biogas etc)

Biofuel is any fuel that is derived from biomass - that is, plant or algae material or animal waste. Since such feedstock material can b ...

May 07, 2021 15:56 IST · 4 min read

What are the Greenhouse gases ?

What is greenhouse effect ? The greenhouse effect is the natural warming of the earth that results when gases in the atmosphere trap ...

Apr 24, 2021 00:26 IST · 4 min read

What Is the Sun's Corona, Sunspots and Solar flares ?

The surface of the Sun has electrically charged gases that generate areas of powerful magnetic fields. The Sun's magnetic field goes through a cycle, ...

Mar 24, 2021 19:21 IST · 1 min read
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Indian Polity

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC)

National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) is a constitutional body, the 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provided constituti ...

May 07, 2021 23:58 IST · 2 min read

National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC)

National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) is a constitutional body established with a view to provide safeguards against the exploitat ...

Apr 15, 2021 12:26 IST · 1 min read

What is "Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)" ?

Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) was set up by the Government in February, 1964 on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of C ...

Apr 08, 2021 09:59 IST · 2 min read
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Indian Economy

The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)

The National Payments Corporation of India is an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems under the ownership ...

May 09, 2021 12:08 IST · 4 min read

What are "Payment Banks" : Eligibility, Regulation etc

Payment Banks are outcome of Dr. Nachiket Mor committee recommendations to cater to the lower income groups and small businesses. ...

Apr 18, 2021 12:03 IST · 1 min read

What are Small finance banks: Eligibility, Regulation etc.

Small finance banks are established as public limited companies in the private sector under the Companies Act, 2013 and can be promoted either ...

Apr 18, 2021 11:37 IST · 2 min read
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Prelims 2021