This page contains "12th July 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.
Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.
India a shareholder of European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
India's application for membership filled in December 2017, was unanimously accepted by The EBRD board of governors.
India will not be a recipient of EBRD financing, despite holding a shareholding in the EBRD.
EBRD inaugural business forum, held in Mumbai was co-hosted with the Federation of Indian Chambers of
Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and with the support of the Export-Import (EXIM) Bank of India. The conference was
held under the banner of "Mobilising private sector finance in the EBRD region and how Indian companies can
EBRD is already working closely with leading Indian organisations including International Solar Alliance (ISA),
FICCI, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and the Associated Chambers of Commerce & Industry of India (ASSOCHAM).
Indian enterprises like Tata, Jindal and Mahindra and Mahindra already have joint projects with EBRD
worth almost one billion euros. India's membership will help in further joint investment prospects in markets such as Central Asia, Egypt and Jordan.
What is European Bank for Reconstruction and Development ?
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) founded in 1991, is a multilateral
developmental investment bank that uses investment as a tool to build market economies.
The bank initially focused on the countries of the former Eastern Bloc in the process of establishing their
private sectors, is now supporting development in more than 30 countries around the world, where United States
is the biggest shareholder.
The bank Headquartered in London, invests in private enterprises and commercial partners along with
public sector shareholders. The bank has a unique feature to not finance coal power plants due to their environmental
impact and supports the Paris climate goals to support green economy.
In order to promotes "environmentally sound and sustainable development", the bank does and does not finance
"defense-related activities, the tobacco industry, selected alcoholic products, substances
banned by international law and stand-alone gambling facilities.
UNSC resolution to protect children in armed conflict
Why UNSC Resolution 2427 ?
A drastic increase from 15,500 violations to 21,000 cases has been verified by UN on children in armed conflict,
the data was published in an annual report of the UN secretary-general on children and armed conflict.
What is UNSC Resolution 2427 ?
In a bid to provide a framework for mainstreaming protection, rights, well-being and empowerment of children throughout the conflict cycle, the UNSC has adopted a resolution namd "Resolution 2427".
The resolution unanimously approved by 15 members of UNSC condemns the recruitment and use of children by parties to armed conflict as well as their re-recruitment, killing and maiming, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and abductions.
The resolution also condemns all violations of international law committed against children in situations of armed conflict,
including attacks against schools and hospitals and the denial of humanitarian access by parties to armed conflict.
It asked all relevant parties to take special measures to protect children and immediately put an end to such practices.
The resolution also emphasise that its states's duty to investigate and prosecute those responsible for genocide,
crimes against humanity, war crimes and other egregious crimes perpetrated against children.
The resolution also reflected readiness of UN Security Council to adopt targeted and graduated measures against
persistent perpetrators of violations and abuses committed against children.
The resolution also demands member states, UN bodies and civil society to ensure basic needs of children during and
post conflict, including education and health care and girls's equal access to education.
Integration of mental health, psycho-social services and importance of long-term and sustainable funding are also
emphasised by the resolution to ensure affected children receive timely and sufficient support.
What is preventing elimination of Manual scavenging in India ?
Centre has launched a challenge as part of the "Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention" to
eliminate the need for manual scavenging, the convention is to be held on October 18 this year.
Government launched challenge for elimination of Manual scavenging
Under the challenge government has asked the innovators, NGOs, research institutions, companies and cities to propose
technology and business solutions to clean urban sewers and septic tanks without human entry.
The plan is to identify technological and business process innovations to endorse viable business models suitable
for cities of different sizes and geographies. Shortlisted technologies and solutions will be implemented on pilot
basis in cities to bridge the gap between innovators or manufacturers and beneficiaries such as urban local bodies
What is preventing elimination of Manual scavenging ?
The machines to clean sewers and septic tanks are already available globally but the government needs to show the
political will to actually use those technology according to Indian conditions on the ground on a large scale.
Technologies are already available in the country with several universities, NGOs and researchers but the problem
lies with their implementation as there is no nationwide government department or agency with the responsibility to
eradicate manual scavenging.
Around 150 manual scavengers has died even after enactment of The Prohibition of Employment as
Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Act, 2013, the government needs to change its instance from
giving compensation when a manual scavenger dies to prevent such deaths in the first place.
Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)
Section 497 is pre-Independence provision of adultery in the IPC that treats a married woman as her husband's
"subordinate" thus violated the constitutional concepts of gender equality and sensitivity. Only a husband
or the person in whose care the husband has left his wife (not the wife herself) can file a complaint under Section 497.
According to Section 497, if a man has sexual intercourse with another's wife without her husband's "consent or
connivance", he is guilty of the offence of adultery and shall be punished". The law is sexist in nature,
for it only criminalises the conduct of the man while excusing the woman.
Section 497 was drafted by the Law Commission in 1847, the commission rendered the liability only on
the male offender, keeping in mind "the condition of the women in this country" and the law's duty to protect it.
Global Innovation Index
India has secured 57th rank in "Global Innovation Index", improving steadily from 60th last year and 81st in 2015.
Switzerland topped the list while Netherlands follows at second place and Sweden at third.
India has steadily improved its GII rank the last four years, after a precipitous drop in 2014 and 2015. Although
ranked at 57, India is the most innovative country in its region of central and southern Asia, this year.
Global Innovation Index (GII), developed jointly by Cornell University, the Paris-based business school Instead and
the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) in Geneva ranks 126 countries based on 80 indicators.
Global Innovation Index (GII), started in 2007 by INSEAD and World Business determines ranking based on data derived
from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank and the World Economic Forum.
Other points for Prelims
1) World Population Day : World Population Day observed on July 11, with this year's theme 'Family Planning is
a Human Right'. India has the largest number of women with unmet need for contraception in the world.