11Th July 2018 : Daily Current Affairs - UPSC CSE/IAS and State PSC

This page contains "11th July 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.

Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.

Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Why in news ?
The Supreme Court refused to adjourn a proposed hearing on a batch of petitions challenging its verdict of 2013 that had re-criminalised consensual carnal sex between two adults.

What is Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

Chapter XVI, Section 377 of IPC referring to "unnatural offences" was introduced in 1861, during the British rule of India.

Section 377 refers to "unnatural offences" and mandates that whoever voluntarily has carnal inter course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years, and shall also be liable to pay a fine.

Offences under Section 377 with respect to sex between consenting adults were decriminalised by the High Court of Delhi on July 2009. But the judgement was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 11 December 2013, holding that amending or repealing Section 377 should be a matter left to Parliament, not the judiciary.

On February 2016, during the final hearing of the petitions filled by the Naz Foundation and others, a three member bench headed by CJI said petitions submitted will be reviewed afresh by a five-member constitutional bench.

On August 2017, SC stated that protection of sexual orientation lies at the core of the fundamental rights and that the rights of the LGBT population are real and founded on constitutional doctrine.

Not only "anal penetration" but sexual acts such as "fellatio" may be punishable under this act.

On December 2013, Supreme Court, virtually denied the LGBT community the right of choice and sexual orientation while upheld the criminalisation of gay sex and dismissed the LGBT community as a negligible part of the population.

In Aug, 2017, the fight against Section 377 got a major boost when a nine-judge Bench of the Supreme Court held that "the right to privacy" is a fundamental right intrinsic to life and liberty.

172nd Law Commission Report had recommended the deletion of Section 377.

June 2018, A person's choice of a partner is a fundamental right, and it can include same-sex partner, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud.
Discuss: Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Official Language in India as per Constitution

The legal framework for the use of official languages in India is taken from "the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various laws, rules and regulations made by the central government and the states."

Language of communication between Union and States is English, but if two or more states agree that the Hindi language should be the official language for communication between such states, that language may be used for such communication.

Constitutional Provisions for official language

Articles 343 to Article 351 in Part 17 of Indian Constitution, have elaborated explanation about the official language of the Republic of India. Articles 343 and 344, particularly deals with the provisions of official language of the Union. Official languages are mentioned in the 8th schedule of Constitution of India.

In 1950, the Indian constitution provided that for a period of 15 years from the commencement of the constitution, English will continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union and envisaged that Hindi would be gradually phased in to replace English, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter. While all Indian states have liberty and power to specify their own official language(s) through legislation.

Why english continued to be official language of India even after 15 years deadline ?

In 1964, an attempt was made by the parliament to replace English with Hindi as official language, but it met with protests from non Hindi speaking states states such as Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, West Bengal, Karnataka, Puducherry and Andhra Pradesh.

As a result, the proposal was dropped, and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that "to end the use of English as an official language will require a resolution passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as it's official language and by each house of the Indian Parliament."

This made the Union government to continues to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes as a "subsidiary official language".

Official Language in Parliament

Indian constitution has mandated different set of rules for official language in Parliamentary proceedings and the language in which laws are to be made.

Official Language for Parliamentary proceedings

As per Constitutional provisions parliamentary proceedings may be conducted in either of the two languages; 1) English or 2) Hindi. Parliamentary proceedings in English has to be phase out after expiration of 15 years prior but parliament chose to extend it's use and enacted the Official Languages Act, 1963 for the purpose.

In addition, the constitution permits a person who is unable to express themselves in either Hindi or English to address the House in their mother tongue, with the permission of the Speaker of the relevant House.

Official Language for Text of all laws

The text of laws, enactments and statutory instruments are to be written in English, the constitution has mandated English as authoritative language for these texts until Parliament decides otherwise. Parliament has not exercised its power in this matter yet.

Official Language of courts

According to the Article 348 of Indian Constitution, language to be used in the Supreme Court and in high courts and for bills acts etc will be in in the English language until parliament by law provides otherwise.

Article 351

Article 351 says that it shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.

Scheduled languages

The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution was originally having a list of 14 languages, but now it has a total of 22 languages : Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkari, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Odia, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu.

4 new languages: Bodo, Maithili, Dogri, and Santali were added via the 92nd Constitutional amendment 2003, to the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.

Recent News: The Rajya Sabha members are now allowed to speak in any of the 22 scheduled languages, the secretariat will arrange simultaneous interpretation for five more languages: Dogri, Kashmiri, Konkani, Santhali and Sindhi.
Discuss: Official Language in India as per Constitution

Institutions of Eminence (IoE) scheme

Centre has recently announced 6 universities in the list of Institutions of Eminence (IoE). There were three categories under which institutions could apply: the public institutions, the already existing private institutions and the greenfield institutions.

1) Public institutions : 1) Indian Institutes of Technology, Mumbai 2) Indian Institutes of Technology, Delhi, 3) Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru.
2) Already existing private institutions: 4) Manipal Academy of Higher Education, 5) BITS, Pilani
3) Greenfield institutions: 6) Jio Institute of the Reliance Foundation.

The Centre is planning to offer the coveted status to 10 government and 10 private institutions, to enable them to break into the world's top 500 in a decade and into the top 100 after that.

As per MHRD, A Letter of intent (LoI) will be issued to greenfield category's institutions requiring them to start academic operations within three years for the IoE (institute of eminence) status to become operational. If their progress was not satisfactory, the empowered committee could recommend the cancellation of the status.

Benefits for Institutions of Eminence (IoE)

Institutions having coveted status will get following benefits:

1) The "coveted status" will enable selected universities to be free from regulations of the AICTE, UGC, or the Higher Education Commission of India (UGC).
2) Institutions will be able to admit 30% foreign students with no restrictions on fees charged from them and can hire foreign faculty up to 25% of the total faculty.
3) Listed institutions will be able to enter into academic collaborations with the top 500 global universities without UGC approval.
4) These Institutions will have full flexibility in evolving curricula and syllabi.
5) 10 public institutions out of total 20 (10 Public + 10 Private) will get assistance of up to 1000 crore rupees over five years.

An empowered committee headed by former Chief Election Commissioner N. Gopalaswami has recommended these institutions. Institutions not listed in this list of 6, can apply again till the committee finalises 10 public and 10 private institutions.

IISc was ranked first in the all-India NIRF rankings of the Centre in 2018, this list of Institutions of Eminence (IoE), is not a replica of all-India NIRF rankings. IIT Madras, ranked second could by NIRF could not place a place in the list yet.
Discuss: Institutions of Eminence (IoE) scheme

Global Housing Construction Technology Challenge - PMAY-U

In a bid to bring construction rate of houses under PMAY-U at par with its counterpart PMAY-R, the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has launched a "Global Housing Construction Technology Challenge" with four parameters time, cost, quality, and sustainability, to make the scheme more dynamic.

PMAY-U is been moving at a pace far slower than PMAY-R, the move of throwing a challenge of this type will help in building houses faster, cheaper, and of better quality, with sustainable green materials.

The plan is to invite ideas from across the globe for alternative technologies that go beyond the brick-and-mortar building model used widely in Indian construction, to make it possible to meet target of providing 'housing for all' under PMAY-U.

Under PMAY-U, a vertical of "the affordable housing project", the innovative ideas will be used in mass construction of houses for economically weaker sections and low-income groups.

The revised target of ministry under the scheme is to provide 1.2 crore houses by 2022, while only 10% of them around 48.26 lakh are constructed so far. The winning technologies will be used to build 1,000 houses within the next six to seven months across six geographically different urban areas.

The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Housing for All (Urban) will be implemented during 2015-2022 and will provide central assistance to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and other implementing agencies through States/UTs.
Discuss: Global Housing Construction Technology Challenge - PMAY-U

India's first ever Tourism Mart to be held in New Delhi

In a bid to double tourist footfall in next three years, India is ready to organise its first ever Tourism Mart in Vigyan Bhaban, New Delhi. A three days Tourism Mart started from September 16, would be similar to major international travel marts organised by many countries.

The event will be organised by the Tourism Ministry in partnership with the Federation of Associations in Indian Tourism and Hospitality (FAITH) with the support of States/UTs to provide a platform for all stakeholders from tourism and hospitality industry to interact and create business opportunities.

The ministry is preparing well to make ITM 2018 a memorable event, road shows are also conducted abroad for the purpose. The platform will help India to showcase its many little known destinations to the world.

Other points for prelims:
1) Shri Ramayana Express : Shri Ramayana Express is a special train started by "Indian Railways", the train will cover important destinations related to the epic in a 16-day journey.

2) Rajasthan has signed a MoU with Microsoft to provide digital training to 9,500 students and 500 faculty members of government colleges. The training will be imparted to 50 colleges of the State between August and November 2018 through MS-Specialist curriculum. Certificates will also be awarded to the students on successful completion of the course.

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