5Th July 2018 : Daily Current Affairs - UPSC CSE/IAS and State PSC

This page contains "5th July 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The Hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.

Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.

What is National Green Tribunal (NGT)

Why in news ?
The National Green Tribunal (NGT) sought response from the Tamil Nadu government and the State Pollution Control Board on a plea moved by Vedanta Ltd challenging the State government?s order to permanently close the Sterlite copper plant at Thoothukudi.

What is National Green Tribunal (NGT)

NGT is a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property.

The tribunal is created by an Act of the Parliament of India; National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 (NGT) and is inspired by Article 21 of the constitution which assures the right to a healthy environment for the citizens of India. India is third country after Australia and New Zealand to setup such an institution.

The tribunal is guided by principles of natural justice and not and not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure. NGT have "New Delhi" as the Principal Place of Sitting and is bound to disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months.

The tribunal consists of a Chairman (A judge of the Supreme Court of India or Chief Justice of High Court), 10-20 judicial members and 10-20 expert members. Apart from them the chairman can call upon any person(s) assist the tribunal on individual case basis.

Although the tribunal does not follow civil law rather works on principles of natural justice, yet the tribunal award has powers equivalent to Civil court.

The tribunal is eligible to hear cases from different acts including Forest (Conservation) Act, Biological Diversity Act, Environment (Protection) Act, Water & Air (Prevention & control of Pollution) Acts etc.

Any aggrieved person can appeal in High Court or Supreme Court against the tribunal decision or award.
Discuss: What is National Green Tribunal (NGT)

DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018

Why in news ?
Union cabinet has cleared recently cleared "DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018", this will make law enforcement agencies to collect DNA samples, create "DNA profiles" and special data banks for forensic-criminal investigations.

DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018

Earlier known as DNA "profiling" Bill, the draft was prepared by Department of Biotechnology. The aim of the bill was to set in place an institutional mechanism to collect and deploy DNA technologies to identify persons based on samples collected from crime scenes or for identifying missing persons.

A "DNA Profiling Board" is to be created under the bill, the board will be final authority on creation of State-level DNA data-banks, approve the methods of collection and analysis of DNA-technologies.

Several clauses of the original bill were deleted to make it stronger and immune to data abuse. The aim of the bill is not to create database of DNA profiles, databases can only store information related to criminal investigations and the DNA details of suspects will be deleted.
Discuss: DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2018

UN Military Observer Group in India, Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Why in news ?
Uruguayan Army official has been appointed as new head of UNMOGIP (UN Military Observer Group in India, Pakistan) by UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres.

What is UN Military Observer Group in India, Pakistan (UNMOGIP) ?

UNMOGIP was created by United Nations(UNSC) to reports on ceasefire violations along and across the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir region, in 1949. UNMOGIP has 44 military observers, 25 international civilian personnel from 10 countries and 47 local civilian staff.

According to India, after the Simla Agreement and the consequent establishment of the Line of Control (LoC), UNMOGIP is now irrelevant and should be abolished. UNMOGIP can only be terminated by a decision of the Security Council.
Discuss: UN Military Observer Group in India, Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Key monetary tools - Banking Sector

Why in news ?
The central bank (RBI) has recently increased its policy repo rate by 25 basis points to 6.25%, for the first time in last four years.

Repo rate

Repo rate or benchmark rate or policy rate is the rate at which the central bank lends short term loans to banks. This rate is increased by RBI to curb liquidity in the market and decreased by RBI to increase the liquidity in market. In this process banks sells government securities to RBI in order to raise money with an agreement to buy them bank on a fixed rate(Repo rate).

Reserve repo rate

Reserve repo rate is the rate at which the central bank (RBI) borrows money from banks for short term, RBI's borrowing from the bank is a policy action that is used to suck money from the market in order to curb liquidity. An increase in Reserve repo rate means that the banks will lend more money to RBI hence less money to be lend to people and this will curbs liquidity in market.

MSF - Marginal Standing facility

MSF - Marginal Standing facility is an emergency tool for banks which is used to get short term loans from the central bank in order to tackle cash shortage like emergency situations against approved government securities. Marginal Standing facility (MSF) is always higher than the repo rate.

Bank Rate

Bank Rate is the rate at which banks borrows money from the central bank for long term loans, without selling or buying any securities. Bank Rate is not used by the central bank for policy formulation. The bank rate is 100 basis points above the repo rate, similarly the repo rate is 100 basis points above the reverse repo rate. This isn?t a rule, but is generally the case.

Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)

As per RBI guidelines, all banks have to hold some portion of deposits with them in cash, this is called CRR. This deposit can not be used by banks for lending or any other purpose. RBI uses this tool to regulate liquidity in market, with a higher CRR banks will have less money to lend that will curb liquidity, on the other hand when RBI feels to release more money in market to boost economic activities it decreases CRR so that banks will have more money to lend in market.

Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)

As per RBI guidelines, all banks are also required to hold a fixed amount of their deposits in government securities with the RBI, this is called Statutory Liquidity Ratio(SLR). Unlike CRR, banks can earn return on these investments.
Discuss: Key monetary tools - Banking Sector

Test Your preparation with: 05 Jul, 2018 | Current Affairs multiple choice questions

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