International Court of Justice (ICJ) - World Court

Why in news ?
Bahrain, Egypt and the UAE has asked ICJ to turn down an decision from ICAO regarding Quatar's plea accusing its neighbours of violating agreement of free passage of passenger planes through foreign airspace.

What is ICJ (International Court of Justice)

International Court of justice (ICJ) or World Court, situated in The Hague, Netherlands is the official court of United Nations, it resolves disputed between member nations and provide advisory opinions to authorised UN organs and specialised agencies.

ICJ was established in 1945 by an UN charter and started working in 1946, the court was succeeded from Permanent Court of International Justice. The court has a total of 15 judges, elected for 9 years by the General Assembly and Security Council of United Nations(UN).

These judges are elected from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. As an informal understanding, these judges should be selected based on geographic distribution and no two judges should not belong to same country.

According to UN charted UNSC has the authority to enforce Court rulings, but this enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council.

According to UN Charter, all 193 UN members are automatically parties to the court's statute while Non-UN members may also become parties to the court's statute.

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