9Th July 2018 : Daily Current Affairs - UPSC CSE/IAS and State PSC

This page contains "9th July 2018" current affairs analysis from different newspapers and magazines like The hindu, Indian express, PIB and Yojna.

Quality and relevance are two key features considered while writing the content, all the topics are based on the pattern of previously asked questions in exams like UPSC CSE, IAS, State PCS, SSC, Banks PO and likewise competitive exams.

Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Why in news ?
The Supreme Court refused to adjourn a proposed hearing on a batch of petitions challenging its verdict of 2013 that had re-criminalised consensual carnal sex between two adults.

What is Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code

Chapter XVI, Section 377 of IPC referring to "unnatural offences" was introduced in 1861, during the British rule of India.

Section 377 refers to "unnatural offences" and mandates that whoever voluntarily has carnal inter course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 years, and shall also be liable to pay a fine.

Offences under Section 377 with respect to sex between consenting adults were decriminalised by the High Court of Delhi on July 2009. But the judgement was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 11 December 2013, holding that amending or repealing Section 377 should be a matter left to Parliament, not the judiciary.

On February 2016, during the final hearing of the petitions filled by the Naz Foundation and others, a three member bench headed by CJI said petitions submitted will be reviewed afresh by a five-member constitutional bench.

On August 2017, SC stated that protection of sexual orientation lies at the core of the fundamental rights and that the rights of the LGBT population are real and founded on constitutional doctrine.

Not only "anal penetration" but sexual acts such as "fellatio" may be punishable under this act.

On December 2013, Supreme Court, virtually denied the LGBT community the right of choice and sexual orientation while upheld the criminalisation of gay sex and dismissed the LGBT community as a negligible part of the population.

In Aug, 2017, the fight against Section 377 got a major boost when a nine-judge Bench of the Supreme Court held that "the right to privacy" is a fundamental right intrinsic to life and liberty.

172nd Law Commission Report had recommended the deletion of Section 377.

June 2018, A person's choice of a partner is a fundamental right, and it can include same-sex partner, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud.
Discuss: Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

Live-streaming in Supreme Court

Why in news ?
A Supreme Court Bench, led by Chief Justice of India has recently supported live-streaming of court proceedings. An plea was filled in SC to make the bench proceedings public in nationally important cases.

More in news
In an earlier hearing SC has asked the Attorney General to assist the court on a plea to live-stream constitution bench proceedings in nationally important cases such as Aadhaar and decriminalisation of gay sex in the Supreme Court.

In a bid to enhance transparency, SC had earlier allowed the installation of CCTV video recording with audio in trial courts and tribunals.

The practice of live streaming in top court proceedings is already in place in many countries around the world, though they differed in their ways.

There are different versions in different countries such as allowing publication after a gap, banning recording of proceedings in trial courts to prevent witnesses compromise, publishing edited versions of the proceedings, record the proceedings but not to air it in public or providing transcripts of proceedings.

Historically, a number of judges were reluctant to the idea because the camera will capture everything including verbal non deciding talks between a judge and lawyers.
Discuss: Live-streaming in Supreme Court

Save water with alternative crops

Why in news ?
U.S.-based Earth Institute, Columbia University and Indian School of Business, Hyderabad has conducted a research and analysed that alternative cereals crops can be useful in saving water, while improving nutritional availability to consumers.

More in news
Indian farmers can save up to 33% irrigation water by switching crop patterns from rice and wheat to alternative cereals, such as maize, sorghum, and millet. This switching of traditional cereals to alternative cereals could also improve nutritional availability to consumers such as iron by 27% and zinc by 13%.

The analysis is based on water and cereal production data (Crop Water Requirement (CWR)) of 1996-2009 and found that alternative cereals disproportionately account for the supply of protein, iron, and zinc among kharif crops.

The study also highlighted that rice is the least water-efficient cereal when it came to producing nutrients, and was the main driver in increasing irrigation stresses.

The study also stressed that India uses procured cereals mainly to meet obligations under the Food Security Act. Under the act India is mandated to provide 5 kg of food-grains per person per month at subsidised prices of 3/2/1 Rupee per kg for rice/wheat/coarse grains.
Discuss: Save water with alternative crops

Chief Justice of India - Master of the roster

Why in news ?
Supreme Court recently held that, Chief Justice of India (CJI) is an individual judge and not powerful than "Collegium" consisting of five senior-most judges of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court has declared its Chief Justice as the 'Master of Roster', third time in last 8 months.

What is Master of the roster ?

'Master of the Roster' refers to the exclusive privilege of the Chief Justice to constitute Benches and allocate cases to them, that means no Judge can take up the any cases on his own, unless allocated by the Chief Justice of India.

According to Article 145 and the Supreme Court Rules, Chief Justice of India "is not" the Collegium, but the CJI is the "ultimate authority to distribute judicial work" and there is no provision for a collegium to allocate cases.

The opinion of the CJI on the Bench carries the same weight as any other member of the Bench, that means even if the CJI is in minority the majority decision of a bench becomes the law.

Being 'Master of the Roster' doesn't mean the CJI has superior authority over his colleagues, Chief Justice is only the "first among equals".
Discuss: Chief Justice of India - Master of the roster

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